<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.0 Transitional//EN"> <!-- saved from url=(0041)file://\\Nazi\e\sol-end\eng-maghale-2.htm --> <HTML><HEAD> <meta http-equiv="Content-Language" content="en-us"> <TITLE>Professor Soltanzadeh</TITLE> <META http-equiv=Content-Type content="text/html; charset=unicode"> <META content="Microsoft FrontPage 5.0" name=GENERATOR> <META content=FrontPage.Editor.Document name=ProgId></HEAD> <BODY text=#000000 vLink=#ff0000 aLink=#0000ff link=#0000ff bgProperties=fixed bgColor=#ffffff leftMargin=0 background="foriegnarticle2_files/bg4 copy.gif" topMargin=0> <DIV align=left> <TABLE height=61 cellSpacing=0 cellPadding=0 width=706 border=0> <TBODY> <TR> <TD vAlign=bottom align=justify width=166 height=1><IMG height=140 src="foriegnarticle2_files/toppage3.gif" width=166 border=0></TD> <TD width=673 background=foriegnarticle2_files/bgew.gif height=1> <DIV align=left> <TABLE height=136 cellSpacing=0 cellPadding=0 border=0 width="613"> <TBODY> <TR> <TD colSpan=4 height=46 width="290"> <P align=center><IMG height=36 src="foriegnarticle2_files/Toptext7.gif" width=255 border=0></P></TD> <TD height=46 width="50"></TD> <TD height=46 width="45"></TD> <TD height=46 width="120"></TD> <TD colSpan=2 height=46 width="118"><IMG height=40 src="foriegnarticle2_files/inkscroll.gif" width=65 align=right border=0></TD></TR> <TR> <TD height=36 width="40"><a href="tamas.htm"><IMG height=30 src="foriegnarticle2_files/But8copy.gif" width=40 border=0></a></TD> <TD height=36 width="80"><a href="karhay.htm"><IMG height=30 src="foriegnarticle2_files/But7copy.gif" width=80 border=0></a></TD> <TD height=36 width="115"><a href="tarh.htm"><IMG height=30 src="foriegnarticle2_files/b1.gif" width=115 border=0></a></TD> <TD height=36 width="55"><a href="maghale.htm"><IMG height=30 src="foriegnarticle2_files/b2.gif" width=55 border=0></a></TD> <TD height=36 width="50"><a href="kongereh.htm"><IMG height=30 src="foriegnarticle2_files/But4copy.gif" width=50 border=0></a></TD> <TD height=36 width="45"><a href="talifat.htm"><IMG height=30 src="foriegnarticle2_files/But3copy.gif" width=45 border=0></a></TD> <TD height=36 width="120"><a href="moarefi.htm"><IMG height=30 src="foriegnarticle2_files/But1copy.gif" width=120 border=0></a></TD> <TD vAlign=bottom height=36 width="84"><a href="index.htm"><IMG height=30 src="foriegnarticle2_files/But10copy.gif" width=80 border=0></a>&nbsp;</TD> <TD height=36 width="34">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</TD></TR> <TR> <TD align=left colSpan=9 height=54 width="623"> <p class="MsoNormal" style="text-autospace: none"> <span style="font-family: Arial; font-weight: 700">THE ROLE OF POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS IN TERM AND PRETERM INFANTS AND BREASTFEEDING MOTHERS</span></TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE></DIV></TD></TR> <TR> <TD vAlign=top align=justify width=166 height=180><IMG height=174 src="foriegnarticle2_files/toppage1.gif" width=114 align=top border=0></TD> <TD width=673 height=180> <DIV align=left> <TABLE cellSpacing=0 cellPadding=4 width=587> <TBODY> <TR> <TD width="579"> <p align="left"><BR><font color="#000080"> <span style="font-family: Arial">William C.Heird , MD<br> &nbsp;</span></font></p> <TR> <TD width="579"> <p class="MsoNormal" style="text-autospace: none"> <font color="#A4738A"> <span style="font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial">SUMMARY</span></font></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="text-autospace: none"> <span style="font-family: Arial">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; DHA and AA,wich are commponents of breast milk but not infant formulas marketed in the United State and some other countries, are important components of the brain, and DHA is a major component of the retina. Also many studies have demonstrated advantages of breastfeeding versus formula-feeding on subsequent cognitive and visual function; however, available data are insufficient to justify the conclusion that the persence of DHA and AA in breast milk is paritally or solely responsible for the apparent advantages of breastfeeding. On the other hand, many studies of DHA (and AA)-supplemented versus unsupplemented formulas have shown clear advantages of the supplemented formulas on visual acuity at 2 and 4 months of age or neurodevelopmental status at 12 to 18 months of age. Although one logically may assume that these early effects may have long-term effects, this assumption is not warranted by the available data. One of the major problems is the difficulty of assessing visual and cognitive function of infants. Scores on standard neurodevelopmental tests at 1 year of age, for example, are only weakly correlated with performance at school age (when more definitive assessments are possible), and little is known about the predictability of later visual function from behavioral or electrophysiologic assessments of visual function early in life.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="text-autospace: none"> <span style="font-family: Arial">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Even prematurely born infants can synthesize DHA and AA and other </span> <span style="font-family: Symbol">w-3 </span> <span style="font-family: Arial">and</span><span style="font-family: Symbol"> w-6 </span><span style="font-family: Arial">&nbsp;LC-PUFAs from the dietary EFAs, LA and ALA.Nonetheless, plasma, erythrocyte and brain lipid levels of DHA are lower in infants whose diets do not contain DHA. Whether more optimal intakes of ALA result in higher plasma and tissue levels of this FA is unclear.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="text-autospace: none"> <span style="font-family: Arial">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The breast-milk content of LC-PUFAs is not regulated by the mammary gland but, rather, reflects the concentrations of LC-PUFAs in maternal plasma lipids that, in turn, are dependent on maternal diet and, probably, maternal activities of the desaturases and elongases involved in converting dietary LA and ALA&nbsp; to LC-PUFAs. This occurrence suggests that some infants receive sufficient&nbsp; LC-PUFAs to support normal rates of deposition, whereas others may not. Also, some infants probably can synthesize additional LC-PUFAs from the LA and ALA contents of human milk. Thus, depending on maternal diet and maternal and infant desaturase and elongase activities, some breastfed infants may receive less than adequate LC-PUFAs to support normal rates of deposition.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="text-autospace: none"> <span style="font-family: Arial">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Clearly , the role of LC-PUFAs&nbsp; in infant development is not a simple issue. Also , no foolproof method exists to ensure an adequate but not excessive intake . Thus, because some evidence shows that dietary LC-PUFAs&nbsp; (DHA,AA,or both) as components of breast milk or formula confers at least transient developmental benefits, supplementation of infant formulas with&nbsp; LC-PUFAs&nbsp; is supportable provided that the supplements used are safe. The safety of all available supplements is unknown; however, some trials reveal few reasons for major concerns about the safety of single-cell oils, low-EPA fish oil, or egg-yolk phospholipid or triglyceride fractions.</span><span style="font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial">&nbsp;</span></p> <hr> <p class="MsoNormal" style="text-autospace: none"><b> <font color="#910000">(The Pediatric Clinic of North America)</font></b></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="text-autospace: none"> <font color="#008000"> <span style="font-family: Arial">BREASTFEEDING 2001, PART I:<br>THE EVIDENCE FOR BREASTFEEDING</span></font></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="text-autospace: none"> <font color="#008000" size="2">Volume 48.Number1.February 2001</font></p> </TR></TBODY></TABLE></DIV><BR> <DIV align=left> <TABLE height=67 cellSpacing=0 cellPadding=0 width=599 border=0> <TBODY> <TR> <TD width=579 height=65> <P class=MsoNormal dir=rtl style="MARGIN-BOTTOM: -15px; DIRECTION: rtl; unicode-bidi: embed; mso-pagination: none; mso-layout-grid-align: none" align=center><a href="index.htm">Home page</a>&nbsp; |&nbsp;<a href="eng-moarefi.htm">Introduction</a>&nbsp;|&nbsp;<a href="eng-tarh.htm"> Research Studies</a>&nbsp; |&nbsp;<a href="eng-talifat.htm"> Editorships</a>&nbsp; |&nbsp;<a href="eng-translate.htm"> Translations</a>&nbsp; |&nbsp;<a href="eng-kongereh.htm"> Conferences</a>&nbsp; </P> <P class=MsoNormal dir=rtl style="MARGIN-BOTTOM: -15px; DIRECTION: rtl; unicode-bidi: embed; mso-pagination: none; mso-layout-grid-align: none" align=center><a href="eng-tamas.htm">Contact Information</a>&nbsp; |&nbsp;<a href="eng-maghale.htm"> Articles</a>&nbsp; |&nbsp;<a href="news.htm"> Scientific meets &amp; events</a>&nbsp; |&nbsp;<a href="research.htm"> Research projects</a>&nbsp; |&nbsp; Theses</P></TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE></DIV></TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE></DIV></BODY></HTML>